General :

*** Note: problems may be set on changing mass**

**Closed and open systems**, momentum and energy, work, power

**Kepler's laws //Proof of Elliptical Orbit Using Polar Coordinates??**

**couples**, conditions of equilibrium of bodies

**second laws of thermodynamics //Hemholtz Energy ?? Gibbs Energy??**

**//Enthalpy??**

**absolute temperature, //Vanderwaal's Equation/ Claypeyron??**

**molecular approach to such simple phenomena in liquids and solids as boiling, melting etc**.

**//Irreversible Processes??**

**The Carnot cycle,**thermodynamic efficiency, reversible and

**irreversible processes,**

**entropy (statistical approach)**,

**Boltzmann factor**

**Note: entropy as a path independent function, entropy changes and reversibility, quasistatic processes**

**solution of the equation for harmonic motion**,

**attenuation and resonance - qualitatively**

**linear polarization,**the classical Doppler effect, sound waves

**measurements of velocity of sound and light**, Doppler effect in one dimension only,

**propagation of waves in homogeneous and isotropic media //Solids??/ Liquids??**, reflection and refraction,

**Fermat's principle**

**candidates should have some understanding that complex waves can be made from addition of simple sinusoidal waves of different frequencies**.

**Interference due to thin films and other simple systems**

**// Fresnel Biprism, Newton's Rings ??**(final formulas are not required),

**superposition of waves from secondary sources (diffraction)**

**circuits containing non-ohmic devices with known V-I characteristics //Diodes/ Zener Diodes/ Transistors in Various Configurations/ Transistor Amplifier/ Transistor Oscillator/ Diode Valves/ Triodes??**

**cyclotron**,

**magnetic dipole moment //of a bar magnet etc..**

**permeability,**energy density of magnetic field

**parallel**and series)

**resonances**

**ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES**

**generation by feedback and resonance**

**diffraction from one and two slits**,

**diffraction grating,**

**resolving power of a grating, Bragg reflection**

**Dispersion and diffraction spectra**

**, line spectra of gases**

**Electromagnetic waves as transverse waves, polarization by reflection, polarizers**

**superposition of polarized waves**

**Resolving power of imaging systems**

**//Rayleigh Jeans Formula??**

**Einstein's formula**is required

**Heisenberg's uncertainty principle**

**RELATIVITY**

**Principle of relativity, addition of velocities, relativistic Doppler effect**

**Relativistic equation of motion, momentum, energy, relation between energy and mass, conservation of energy and momentum //Lorentz Transformations**

**Simple applications of the Bragg equation**

**molecules (qualitatively)**, emission,

**absorption, spectrum**of hydrogenlike atoms

**Energy levels of nuclei (qualitatively)**, alpha-, beta- and gamma-decays, absorption of radiation, halflife and exponential decay, components of nuclei, mass defect, nuclear reactions.

Additional requirements:

**most common experimental techniques for measuring physical quantities mentioned in Part A.**

**diodes, transistors, simple optical devices and so on.**

**double-beam oscilloscope, counter, ratemeter, signal and function generators, analog-to-digital converter connected to a computer, amplifier, integrator, differentiator, power supply, universal (analog and digital)**volt-, ohm- and ammeters.

**rror of a single measurement, error of a series of measurements**, error of a quantity given as a function of measured quantities.

**Transformation of a dependence to the linear form by appropriate choice of variables and fitting a straight line to experimental points.**

**polar**and logarithmic papers).

Please note:

- The syllabus for National Standard Examination in Physics (NSEP) is broadly equivalent to the senior secondary level (Class XI and Class XII) of CBSE Physics. This is only a rough guideline, and there is no detailed syllabus given for NSEP.

- The syllabus for Indian National Physics Olympiad (INPhO) is broadly similar to NSEP but the difficulty level of the questions will be higher. Questions and problems in National Olympiads are usually non-conventional and of high difficulty level, comparable to International Olympiads.